Telephones – A History – The First Construction

In this next part in our series on the history of the telephone, we’re going to pick up with the construction of the first regular telephone line.

After Bell’s completion of the telephone in 1876 the next step was making it so that this invention could be used by everybody. So in 1877, construction of the first regular telephone line, which ran from Boston to Somerville, Massachusetts, was finished. By the end of 1880 there were over 47,900 telephones in the United States and in 1881 a telephone service from Boston to Providence was set up. Then in 1892, they started a service between New York and Chicago. Two years later, in 1894, a service began between New York and Boston but it wasn’t until 1915 that transcontinental service by overhead wire was created. Backtracking a bit, the first switchboard, what we now call 411 service, was set up in Boston in 1877. Then on January 17, 1882, Leroy Firman got his first patent for a telephone switchboard.

The first telephone exchange was set up in New Haven in 1878. The first telephones were leased to people in pairs. Each person was required to put up his own line in order to connect with another. Finally, in 1889, a Kansas City undertaker by the name of Almon B. Strowger invented a switch that could connect one line to any one of 100 lines using a series of relays and sliders. This switch came to be known as the Strowger Switch and it was still being used by telephone offices over 100 years later. Strowger was given a patent in 1891 for his first automatic telephone exchange.

The very first exchange that used the Strowger Switch was set up in La Porte, Indiana in 1892. At first, subscribers to the service had a button on their telephone that produced the required number of pulses by tapping on it. It wasn’t until 1896 that one of Strowger’s assistants invented the rotary dial. This ultimately replaced the button and is still in use on telephones today, mostly for novelty purposes. In 1943, Philadelphia was the last city to give up dual service for both button and pulse dialling.

The first touch tone system, which used tones in the voice frequency range instead of pulses used by rotary dials, was installed in Baltimore, Maryland in 1941. Operators in a central switching office pushed the buttons to make this work. The problem was, it was just too expensive for general use by the public, but the Bell Telephone Company, named after the man credited with the invention of the phone, was still interested in the touch tone system because it increased the speed of dialling.

The answer to this problem came in the 1960s when low cost transistors and circuit components made the cost effective use of touch tone telephones in a person’s home a real possibility. Through much testing, positioning of the buttons limited errors and increased dialling speed even more. The touch tone phone got its big preview at the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair, where it was a huge success.

The Use Of Steel Building Components In Construction

More and more construction nowadays is being carried with the help of steel components all over the world. In this ezine we take a look at the essence of steel buildings parts, their advantages and disadvantages if there are any and touch upon the modern approach to construction – prefabricated steel buildings.

Steel building parts are the most solid and reliable type of all building materials that can stand the test of time. Should we take this statement for granted or is it necessary to compare them with PVC building components, silicate, fibreboard, lumber, wood, masonry and other building types that have always been principal building materials for any kind of buildings whether storages, commercial buildings, barns or detached houses?

The reason of metal and steel components’ wide distribution is simple: they are firm, more or less cheap, aesthetic, non-combustible, do not require further treatment and are environmentally friendly. This is not the whole list of their advantages but even these qualities are enough to draw attention to metal and steel components. One issue needs even more elaboration: their elasticity and reliability. Time when hundreds of fibreboard-buildings and pvc-houses have been swept away by storms, tornados and other natural disasters has practically gone into non-existence – people do not want to be scared anymore. This especially applies to the states that always experience unfavorable weather conditions, like, for instance, Texas and Kansas. Reliable, solid and firm steel components enjoy high popularity there. At the same time metal structures are made of metal and can often corrode. Corrosion is one of the biggest disadvantages of metal parts used for construction though nowadays most of the manufacturers heat-treat metal parts in order they become stainless and stone-like. Heat conductivity is another problem of metal structures that is why houses are not equipped with them in full scale.

Somehow or other metal parts are indispensable in building and construction. For civil engineering and industrial engineering they help to build long bays without any kind of column or buttresses. Even outdoor construction is not deprived of using steel building components: fences, grilles, grates and sheds are made of steel as well.

No one denies the fact that lumber has been the only building material that could stand all kinds of damages except fire for centuries. Amsterdam, Venice and other European cities have most of the buildings that are situated on wood poling and will remain there for centuries. But we live in the 21st century that requires firmness, reliability and simplicity of construction. That is why prefabricated steel buildings are so popular nowadays.

Anyway, prefab buildings suborn by their universality: you do not need to be a builder or engineer – you just buy steel building parts and construction becomes the sphere you should not fear. With prefab-building components you can easily assemble a shed, a barn, a small warehouse and a lot of different things. Prefabricated steel components are widely used in industrial engineering as well as they save time, money and labor: warehouses, plants, ice palaces, riding-halls and hangars are usually made of separate prefabricated metal building components.

Arrival at the 40th Signal Battalion (Construction) – Long Binh

From the 90th Replacement Battalion seven or eight of us were taken to the 40th Signal Battalion Headquarters which was also on Long Binh. Our in-processing took several days. A Master Sergeant Ladd was in charge of our group. As long as we kept our hair cut and made police call he left us alone. This was greatly appreciated by all. You do not meet a good NCO such as this very often.

Nothing of any consequence happened during in-processing. Mike Massey from Dodge City Kansas and myself were made to leave the EM club for drinking a rum and coke. We were not yet 21 and this was the age limit for booze. Hard to believe you were in Vietnam and could only drink beer if you were under 21. Later I found out that most EM clubs did not have such a rule.

Near completion of in-processing I found out I was going to Qui Nhon on the central S. Vietnam coast. I did not know what to expect or how I was going to get there at the time. I later learned that I was to fly to Qui Nhon with Massey, Carpenter, and Baker. I have forgotten if anyone else went along for the ride. We were driven to Tan Son Nhut AFB in Saigon where we caught a C-130 to Qui Nhon. This was my first experience with troop seats and would not be my last by a long shot. We arrived in Qui Nhon in the evening, I’d say around 2030 hours. None of us had eaten since breakfast.

Quebec Hoping For Construction of New NHL Arena

It’s been 17 long and horrible winters since an NHL team has set foot in Quebec City and it’s driving them crazy. Now that the NHL has experimented with putting teams in southern U.S. markets with little success, the possibility of teams relocating to Canada is a strong as ever. The city of Winnipeg and the return of the Jets has helped Quebec’s cause. Since relocating from Atlanta, the Jets have boasted record sellouts and sparked plenty of fanfare city-wide. Jets tickets are extremely hard to come by in Winnipeg although they play in the smallest NHL arena at 15,000 capacity.

With the weakening of the Canadian dollar and playing in Quebec, Canada’s smallest market, the Nordiques were sold to Denver where they are currently the Colorado Avalanche. The language barrier also played a part in the relocation because the Nordiques had limited marketability and some players wouldn’t want to play there because of the language barrier. (The primary language in Quebec City is French). There were also no other large markets near the city to draw fans from which didn’t help the Nordiques’ overall team revenue and television market.

Although the Winnipeg Jets have been doing quiet well both financially and as a team, how will those factors fare ten years from now? That’s the question Quebec must ask itself. Sure, they could sellout on the regular market but will they be able to sell corporate boxes and luxury suites? New arenas are popping up for the sole reason of owners to erect more private seating areas. Does Quebec have the corporate backing that Calgary, Edmonton and Ottawa have?

The projected construction costs of the new arena in Quebec is in excess of 400 million Canadian dollars and a projected completion date of 2015. The governing bodies of both the city and province are expected to split the cost of the new NHL arena and media company Quebecor will also play it’s part as an investor.

There are still plenty of clauses and fine print in the deal we can be certain. There is little time to waste, however. Cities such as Las Vegas, Kansas City, Seattle, Hamilton and Saskatoon have made it very clear that they’re in pursuit of an NHL franchise. It may not be a matter of which city will be the best fit for a new NHL arena but which city has one erected the soonest. But the approval of a new arena makes Quebec’s hopes of getting back their Nordiques all the more likely.

Homeowner Liability: Dorothy, This Isn’t Kansas Anymore – Or Is It?

We’ve all seen the Wizard of Oz. Essentially the movie starts with a tornado picking up Dorothy’s house and dumping it the same way a kid picks up a stuffed animal and tosses it into the toy box.

So, what’s the point?

Most sheds and small building structures are not properly secured to the ground. This is a considerable hazard. Did you realize that foundations serve two purposes? First, they protect a building or structure from the decay, pest infestation and settling. Second, they anchor buildings to the ground.

Simply stated, foundations are used to resist nature’s temptation to toss buildings around as if they were Legos.

So, you have an accessory structure in your back yard; how do you know that it’s properly secured? Oh… what’s an accessory structure? As defined by the International Residential Code (the book that most governmental jurisdictions use for determining the adequacy of construction or the building department’s bible):

…A structure not greater than 3,000 square feet in floor area, and not over two stories in height, the use of which is customarily accessory to and incidental to that of the dwelling(s) and which is located on the same lot.

So the question still stands, what is an accessory structure? It can be a garage, barn or even a shed. The main point is that most sheds do not meet the basic provisions of the code. There is clearly a homeowner liability problem.

Imagine, a big wind storm comes through and Pow, your shed is doing it’s impression of a tumble weed; rolling along and falling apart as it goes leaving a trail of debris along the way. Really, all it takes is a big gust during a storm.

Now, when what is left of your shed comes to rest on top of your neighbor’s new car, what do you do? It’s hard to pin the blame on your other neighbor across the way.

Blame Game

Is your homeowner’s insurance company going to cover the damage? Normally we would all say yes. But, what if they realized the damage was caused you ignored the building code? Does ignorance pass the test here? I sure wouldn’t want to find out.

Forget about the neighbor’s new car; what about your safety…or your children’s….not to mention the contents that were in the shed.

All of these issues are most likely avoidable by properly attaching your shed to a foundation or slab.

To learn everything you ever imagined about sheds, including shed plans [http://www.homeimprovementu.com/sheds-and-plans/], ideas, step-by-step instructions, video training and coaching, visit us at [http://www.HomeImprovementU.com]. We are architects with considerable construction experience and are here to help with all of your home building needs.

Kansas Flint Hills Nature Trail – How Is This Fairly New Volunteer-Built Nature Trail Coming Along?

What and where is it?

The Flint Hills Nature Trail (FHNT) is a proposed 117-mile east-west all-purpose rail-to-trail running between the towns of Osawatomie and Herington in eastern Kansas. This railroad bed has had several past owners, primarily for hauling coal. It is now considered a wildlife refuge.

At its eastern end, the trail borders the Marias des Cynges River. At its western end, it passes through the Flint Hills, which is a tallgrass prairie ecosystems. Although this developing trail is under the direction of the Kanza Rail-Trail Conservancy, it is being funded through private donations, and constructed with volunteer equipment and workers.

Currently, about 50-miles of five separate sections are completed with repaired bridges and packed limestone gravel pathways, counting the town streets these sections run through. The rest of it is open and under gradual development. These incomplete sections are overgrown with ballast rock pathways, better suited for hiking and riding horses than for bicycling. When completed, however, it will be the longest rail-trail in Kansas.

Who can use it?

Bicyclists, hikers, walkers, runners, horse-riders, nature enthusiasts, photographers, groups, cross-country skiers.

Is there a day fee?

No. But Internet and mail-in donations are welcome.

What is not allowed on its corridor?

Motorized vehicles except for wheelchairs, fireworks, hunting, trapping, firearms, camping, campfires, littering, alcohol, unleashed pets, nighttime use.

Does it have trailhead facilities?

Not really. Restrooms, food, and water are found in the villages and small towns along its route. Its trailheads are mainly parking areas at this time.

What does it offer?

Incredible outdoor and nature experiences. It offers closeup views of wildflowers, grasses, and plants together with many birds, butterflies, and small animals. Birds will sometimes feign injury to keep trail users away from their nearby nests.

What sections are open (between towns from east to west)?

Osawatomie to Ottawa (22-miles, town to town; see description further below)
3-mile stretches on each side of and through Vasser (6-miles)
Admire to Bushong (12-miles)
Allegawaho Park to Council Grove (5-miles)
2900 Road to Herington (4-miles)

Osawatomie Section (east end; John-Brown Highway in Osawatomie to East-7th Street in Ottawa)

Because much of the eastern section borders a river, its corridor is lined with large shade trees, shrubs, and wildflowers of all kinds. Only its road-crossings and a handful of neighboring farm fields open-up fully to sunshine and southerly breezes. The high bridges here have side railings; the low ones have concrete curbs.

Its pathway is packed solid with crushed limestone screenings. A few of the ballast rocks beneath it have made their way to the surface. But they pose no serious bicycling problems. A few horse tracks and droppings cause no problems neither.

The village of Rantoul, which is about halfway between these two towns, has parking, a post office, an open shed stocked with snack/soda machines, but not much else commercially. However, food and water can be found easily at the end-point towns (Osawatomie & Ottawa) of this section via their paved streets.

Conclusion. The volunteer workforce building the FHNT is doing a tremendous job under limited funding. Although the trail’s finished sections seem a bit rugged, their varied outdoor nature scenes are almost pristine. In time, with more public funding and the installation of full trailheads, this rail-trail will be one of the Midwest’s best. The following website gives more information on Kansas trails.

St Boniface – Brief History on the Survival of a Large Country Church in Rural Kansas

he St Boniface Church and Cemetery is located in Scipio, KS, a small hamlet between the towns of Richmond and Garnett, and two-miles east of Highway-59. This Catholic church with its 160′ copper steeple and its stained-glass windows is uniquely large for a country church, also having an equal-in-length rear ‘L’ wing that is currently a rectory and retreat combined. At one time this two-story limestone wing was a monastery for 25 Carmelite friars, who built the current limestone church, and who subsistence farmed/gardened up to 600-acres around it.

Original Church

In the mid 1850’s, a handful of Jesuit missionaries served the Native Americans in eastern Kansas. And then, against these missionaries wishes, these natives were moved further south. At about the same time, numerous immigrants were taking up farm land in the Scipio region, most of them German Catholics.

Because the Scipio group wanted its own church bad, two prominent members of this community prevailed upon the bishop in Leavenworth for their own priest. They got a once-a-month visiting missionary instead. However, because his unannounced visits didn’t work well, they prevailed on the bishop again, who paid them a visit. After seeing the nearly 40 dedicated families of faith and means living there, he assigned them a permanent priest.

The community then built their new resident priest a small home and log-church on 20-acres of donated land. It was dedicated in the spring of 1859. St Boniface would be the only Catholic church in Anderson county for 25 years. However, this situation would change in time as its surrounding big picture developed.

Outgrowing It

In 1865, St Boniface was turned over to the Carmelite Order, a large order of friars with German roots. This Order gave the parish a big boost in membership. In 1869, the railroad came nearby. By the 1870’s, the parish had outgrown its log church, which was also damaged by a prairie fire. With more families in the parish now, plans were started for a new church on top of the hill, west of the log one.

In 1873, their head friar ordered the construction of a log frame Carmelite monastery which would also serve as Mt Carmel College parallel to what would later become the current church. For a while, the church services would be held in this frame monastery, while the new church was being built.

Eventually, this future building arrangement would give the whole facility a large ‘U’ shape facing west when done. The construction continued with a one-room parochial school, a community hall, and a Ursuline Sisters home north of the proposed church. Meanwhile, the friars and lay-persons having stonemason skills hewed and stockpiled their own limestone blocks for the planned 1881-built church. Its cornerstone was laid in 1882.

By this time, the Carmelites had increased their land holdings to 600 acres. The brothers farmed/gardened it, which included a 10-acre vineyard and winery. They also built a massive rectangular red barn and sheds for dairy cows, livestock, hay, grain storage, and equipment. No doubt, they had a smoke house and places for butchering, canning, and doing laundry.

Times Changed

Because the township surrounding Scipio is on a country road between Highways 59 & 169, it never incorporated. Only a few houses remain there today. Other Catholic churches sprang up in the nearby towns of Richmond, Garnett, and Greeley, all three of them on busy highways that came into being in time.

The frame college closed, and was eventually torn down. The parochial school also closed. So did the nearby railroad, which later became a 51-mile rail-trail. Several friars and Ursuline sisters/teachers left for other places. The farming stopped. The land was rented out for a while, but was eventually sold. A storm destroyed the big Carmelite barn, and the population in the nearby towns increased.

Today

St Boniface still has about 60 active families in its parish today. Its Easter and Christmas services have standing-room-only attendance. Its college-building area is turned into a meditation garden with a fountain. Its limestone monastery has been retrofitted into a rectory and modern three-unit retreat for priests and others needing quiet healing. It’s called Elijah’s Rest.

Two friars live in the rectory, where they serve the church. The historical cemetery is still used, and sits where the original log-church stood. Tourists visit this church and its well-kept cemetery. Its doors are always open. For detailed information on this church, see the booklet below.

Bicycling – Does the Kansas Prairie Spirit Rail To Trail Hold Up to Its Name?

Trail Description.

Stretching southward from the north-end of Ottawa to downtown Humboldt, KS (which includes a recent county-controlled eight-mile addition), this now 60-mile hard-packed limestone trail is fun and easy to ride. It offers attention-getting scenic views, both close-in and far-out. Its corridor is packed with hedge rows of trees, wild plants and flowers, tall grass, and numerous sumac and cedar evergreens. In 2008, the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks (KDWP) opened its last section. In August 2010, it became an official state park with its own ranger.

Several sections of the Prairie Spirit Trail (PST) are heavily treed with partial and full canopies, while others open up to prairie and farm views, i.e., cattle grazing next to fields of hay, corn, sorghum, milo, soybeans, sunflowers, and tall grasses (big bluestem, Indian, switch, and buffalo). It is spotted with creeks, streams, bridges, ponds, marshes, small lakes, and rest benches. Its surface is well-crowned with a few steep embankments to be mindful of while riding it.

In places where its corridor borders wooded or undeveloped grazing land, much wildlife can be seen early or late in the day, e.g., bobcat, turkey, coyote, opossum, woodchuck, racoon, and white-tail deer in addition to the plentiful rabbits, squirrels, green snakes, racers, turtles, and tiny lizards. Blue jays, doves, flickers, woodpeckers, hawks, herons, quail, ducks, geese, birds, and butterflies can also be seen. In the summer and fall, berries, persimmons, hedge apples, and walnuts are plentiful.

Towns and basic rules.

In the larger towns of Ottawa, Garnett, and Iola, where most lodging and cafes are found, the trail is paved, and lit at night. Many local bicyclists and walkers use these town sections during the day and night, free. Yet the rest of the trail is open only during daylight hours. The newer eight-mile section from Iola to Humbold, called the Southwind Trail (SWT), is free to all users.

Camping, horses, and motorized vehicles except for wheelchairs and patrol vehicles are not allowed on the corridor itself. But camping or lodging can be found in the three larger towns. Firearms, fireworks, hunting, and alcohol are not allowed in the corridor. At the road crossings, the timber gates are posted with the road names and trail information.

Trailheads.

Its eight real trailheads, 10 counting the depot museum in Ottawa and the town-square of Humboldt, have roof-covered picnic tables on concrete slabs, some of them in small public parks. Seven have outside water fountains. Eight have $3.50/day pay stations for riding the PST beyond the three paved city limits (Ottawa, Garnett, Iola). Six have well-constructed restrooms which are open from mid-April to mid-October.

The one at Garnett is a refurbished Santa Fe Depot museum with both indoor/outdoor picnic tables, plus an information center. It is open all year, but it is often locked at night. This trailhead is a popular SAG or lunch stop for organized charity and distance rides. The average distance between all of the trailheads or town services is about 7.5-miles.

Trailhead details (from north to south).

Ottawa. Old Depot Museum with inside restroom when open and outside water fountain; located at the north end of the business district, one block north of 1st-Street. Ottawa’s second trailhead is 2.25-miles further south w/water fountain, pay station, and picnic area just south of 17th Street near the fairgrounds. No restroom. Eating places located on the business Main Street one-block east of trail.
Princeton. Full trailhead w/restroom, outside water fountain, and picnic area. Gasoline station w/convenience store and bar-grill on Hwy-59 three-blocks east of trail.
Richmond. Full trailhead.
Garnett. Full trailhead at restored depot. Eating places on the south-side of the town-square adjacent to the trail and 4-blocks further west on Route-59.
Welda. Full trailhead, partly hidden by tree row on west side.
Colony. Full trailhead. Midtown country cafe and convenience store one-block east of trail.
Carlyle. Limited trailhead w/restroom and picnic table; no water fountain.
Iola. Public park on the westside of State Street w/water fountain near the pay station; no restroom. Two cafes across the street east from the park; other outlets nearby. In 2012, this part of the trail was extended 1-1/2-miles further south to Riverside Park, which is close to the cafes on Madison Avenue (aka Route 54).
Humboldt. The entire combined trail now ends here at Hawaii Road at the north end of Humboldt (this section opened in June 2013, and is free to the public). No full trailhead yet, only signage and parking. Services located at or near the town-square one-mile further southwest.

Because the distances between several well-spaced towns and their trailheads are fairly short, the combined Prairie Spirit and Southwind trails are ideal for day hikes, nature walks, or bike rides of any length up to 120-miles round trip. Frequent full-trail users can get annual passes from retailers where the fishing/hunting licenses are sold, $12.50 each, or online at the KS Department of Wildlife and Parks.

The residents of eastern Kansas and western Missouri are lucky to have a safe well-kept trail where the nature and prairie views are seasonally pleasant and refreshing. This trail corridor has the largest variety of seasonal natural wildflowers in the region. Yes, it does hold up to its name. For more information on rail-to-trail and Kansas trails, see these websites.

Finding Roll Off Dumpster Rental in Kansas Is Pretty Easy

Kansas is a US state named after Kansas river. The state is surrounded by Nebraska on the north; Missouri on the east; Oklahoma on the south; and Colorado on the west. It is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities. The economy of the state is supported by both industrial and agriculture products.

In the wake of going back to eco-friendly environment, large numbers of people are now realizing the importance recycling the generated trash in eco-friendly manner. The trash generated on certain projects like construction and house renovation is huge and bulky. Taking a decision to dispose these huge tons of trash on self may leave you with injuries due to lack of professionalism in handling task. when you decide to dispose the generated trash in environmental friendly manner in Kansas, it is must for you to go for dumpster rental Kansas.

When you hire dumpster, all your unwanted trash will be wiped out hassle free. Before you go for dumpster rental in Kansas, it is very important for you to have certain basic information about the types of dumpsters available and the size of the dumpster that fits in your project requirements. let us focus on generic specifications of dumpster sizes that fit in your project requirements.

Dumpsters available in dumpster rental company Kansas are generally are of two types, one trash dumpster and the other roll off dumpster. Trash dumpsters are usually small in size and they fit in small trash disposal projects like restaurant cleanups and departmental cleanups. They usually range between 3 yard to 6 yard and are best fit for the small projects.

The next types of dumpsters that are available are roll off dumpsters. These are the dumpsters that are most widely used in the trash disposal project. They are uniquely designed to handle huge tons of waste generated in the large projects like construction, house renovation, and yard clean up and construction projects. Trash accumulated on completion of these kinds of projects will not only be very huge, but also very bulky in nature. The roll off dumpsters is usually mounted on wheels so that they can easily be rolled on to the trucks. These roll off dumpsters being enclosed with the double doors, one on the top and one at the bottom will facilitate easy dumping into the dumpster however huge it is. Not all the roll off dumpsters will fit every kind of the project; it differs from project to project. A 10yard dumpster will be a best fit for a home renovation project, a 30 yard for construction project and a 40 yard for commercial disposal.

Every dumpster has a limit on the tonnage of the trash disposed, letting the representative know about the tonnage of the trash disposed will place right sized dumpster at your door step. Any excess trash disposed above the said limit will invite extra charges from you, so it is very important for you to let the representative know about the tonnage of the trash that has to be disposed.

The task at your disposal is finding the best roll off dumpster rental company in Kansas. Increased competition among the dumpster rental companies has established a wide number of garbage bin rental companies online; the professional dumpster rental companies Kansas will have wide ways for the customers to reach them. you can reach the company online or through phone, web, email. You can enjoy the comfort of placing an order from home. The representative will have friendly conversation and will clarify all your doubts regarding the trash bin rental before you place an order with them.

Missouri Requires the OSHA 10 Hour Construction Course

The state of Missouri requires workers to complete the OSHA 10 hour construction safety course when working on certain types of construction projects. In all, there are 7 states that have some form of this requirement. The specific criteria for projects in Missouri differ from the other states as do the penalties and the enforcement of this requirement. All of these are covered in this article; as well what is considered valid proof or completion.

Projects covered by the OSHA 10 Hour Requirement

Missouri state government defines a construction project covered by the requirement for the OSHA 10 hour course as:

Public works projects, including work done by utilities
Construction, reconstruction, demolition, painting, decorating or major repairs

The state defines “public works” to include projects that are even partly funded by state or local governments. Many states have a cutoff for smaller dollar value projects; for example, projects under $100,000 may be exempt. It is unclear if Missouri has this requirement. There are a few small exceptions for public utility and rail crossing projects.

Covered Employees and Timeline

Every worker doing onsite work needs to complete the OSHA 10 hour course within 60 days of doing work at the construction site. This 60 day buffer is a nice benefit that employers have in Missouri that many other states do not allow.

One other nice part of the requirement is that employees that are onsite and asked for proof of completion of the course have up to 20 days to produce the proof. This does not mean they have 20 days to take the course after being asked for proof, but it does give then an opportunity to produce proof if they happen to have forgotten or misplaced the proof of completion.

Geographic Areas Covered

All major metropolitan areas, including Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, and Columbia, and all rural areas are covered by this requirement, as long as the project meets the requirements above for size and public works.

Proof of Completion

The Missouri statue does not define the requirements for proof of completion. However, other states accept:

OSHA 10 hour card, issued by the Department of Labor
Certificate or completion from an OSHA accepted provider

Workers are encouraged to verify with their employer any specific proof of completion required for the specific worksite, however, in virtually all cases, a certificate of completion from an OSHA accepted provider is acceptable.

Penalties and Notification

Both contractors and subcontractors need to meet this requirement. The public entity putting out the bid is also required to include the OSHA 10 hour requirement in the call for bids.

The penalty to the contractor is $2,500 plus $100 for each employee for each day they are employed without completing the OSHA 10 hour course. The public body managing the project withholds the money from payments to the contractor.

The requirements for the OSHA 10 hour course began on August 28, 2009 and are still in effect.

The department of labor and industrial relations is responsible for enforcing this requirement for the state of Missouri. The information in this article is only a summary; specific questions regarding how the requirements pertain to a particular job or worksite should be made to this department.